Indo-Pak War of 1965
The Pakistani invasion of India in 1965, similar to that of 1947, was a well thought out diabolical plan consistent with Pakistan's anti-India and annex-Kashmir policies pursued since its formation. The objectives and modus operandi were the same. Pakistan-trained infiltrators supported by its regular army soldiers were pushed into Indian territory with the same purpose of sabotage, disruption and distribution of arms among the locals to start a guerrilla uprising. The prevailing conditions which encouraged Pakistan to undertake the misadventure were in fact, construed as ideal by Pakistan. The death in May 1964 of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and the coming to power of the late Lal Bahadur Shastri as Nehru's successor were treated by Pakistan as an encouragement to complete its unfinished war of 1947. Shastri was considered as a weakling and India was perceived as being deeply pre-occupied with its internal crises. Therefore, Pakistan assumed that India would not be able to react effectively to the situation. Simultaneously, article 356 and 357 of the Indian constitution which provided for governor's rule were extended to J&K under the process of integration. This was considered by Sheikh Abdullah as an encroachment on Kashmir's status as the article, in fact, provided for the governor's rule without the consent of the state legislature. The resentments expressed by Sheikh Abdullah were also construed as a probable Kashmiri support to Pakistan in the eventuality of a war with India. The invasion into J&K in the form of an armed infiltration in small numbers started from August 1965. The Pak incursions in J&K continued for about a month till the ceasefire was effected under the aegis of the UN Security Council on 23 September 1965. The invaders were repulsed by the Indian army and Pakistan's 'Operation Gibraltar' resulted in a total failure. The Kashmiris' support, in fact, was miscalculated by the Pakistani authorities and the invaders. Both the countries later signed the Tashkent Declaration on 10 January 1966 which provided for a temporary truce.