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Important Historical Documents

These documents tell their own story about the events of Jammu & Kashmir.


List of Documents:


Maharaja Hari Singh's Letter to Mountbatten

Text of letter dated October 26, 1947 from Hari Singh, The Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir to Lord Mountbatten, the Governor General of India. This letter clearly spells out what prompted the Maharaja to rush to India and the crisis precipitated by the Pakistani invasion of J&K.



Accession Of Jammu And Kashmir State To India

The terms of the accession of the State of Jammu & Kashmir to the Union of India. This document contains the terms of the accession of the State to India as well as Mountbatten's acceptance of the Instrument of Accession.



Text of India's Indian Complaint to the Security Council, 1st January 1948.

This complaint made by India to the UN placed the Jammu & Kashmir problem before the world body. The intention was to ask the world community to acknowledge Pakistani aggression on the people of J&K and to force Pakistan to vacate its troops from that state so that a final solution to the question of the state's accession to India could be found.



Sheikh Abdullah's speech to the UN

Excerpts from the speech made by Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah in the Security Council Meeting No.241 held on 5 February 1948.

In this speech, Sheikh Abdullah explains why the world body needed to force Pakistan to vacate its troops from J&K. The pity is that the UN failed India and the leaders of J&K, and paved the way for years of "dispute".



U.N.RESOLUTION August 13, 1948.

This is the most significant resolution passed by the UN on the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It clearly states that Pakistan was to vacate its troops from the whole of the state. It also mentions, albeit indirectly, that Pakistan had consistently lied on the question of whether or not its troops were involved in the fighting in Jammu & Kashmir. Once the then Pakistani Prime Minister conceded that Pakistani troops were indeed involved, the UN had no option but to ask for their withdrawal. That the withdrawal never took place, is another story.



Resolution on Assurances adopted by U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan(UNCIP) 1948

This resolution was in the form of an assurance provided to India before the main U.N. Resolution of August 13, 1948, was to be implemented.



Article 370 of the Indian Constitution

The Indian government gave special concessions to the state of Jammu & Kashmir and did not try to wholly assimilate it with India. The aim was to give the peoples here greater control over their lives. Inhabitants of this state do not pay taxes and are exempt from many Indian laws. Outsiders cannot purchase land and cannot set up businesses in J&K to this day.



Excerpts from Sheikh Abdullah's Opening Address to the J&K Constituent Assembly

Excerpts from the speech made by Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah addressing J&K Constituent Assembly held on 5th November 1951. "The source of all sovereignty reside fundamentally in the nation. Sovereignty is one and indivisible, inalienable and imprescriptable. It belongs to the nation." said Sheikh Abdullah.



The Tashkent declaration 10th February 1966

The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan, having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations between their countries and to promote understanding and friendly relations between their peoples. They consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan. [Text of the Declaration]



The Kashmir Accord 13 Nov 1974

This accord was signed between National Conference leader Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah and Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister. This accord led to Sheikh Abdullah's subsequent assumption of office as Chief Minister in February 1975. [Text of the Accord]



Simla Agreement, 2 July 1972

This agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan was signed after the 1971 India-Pakistan War, in which Pakistan was defeated conclusively and which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. India refrained from attacking or finishing off Pakistan and signed this agreement with the hope that henceforth the countries in the region would be able to live in peace with each other. The then Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also promised the then Indian Prime Minister, Mrs Indira Gandhi, that his country would accept the Line of Control (LOC) in the state of J&K as the de facto border and would not try ot de-stabilise it. This was not formally entered in the agreement because Bhutto said it would cause domestic problems for him at this juncture. Mrs Gandhi magnanimously accepted his promise and did not formalise that part of the agreement. But Pakistan, as later events were to prove, never kept its part of the deal.